Wednesday, August 29, 2012

Independent Scientific and Medical Reviews of Fluoride and Implications for Water Fluoridation

We have now had four independent reviews of water fluoridation undertaken this year. Firstly a review  by Declan Waugh titled Human Toxicity, Environmental Impacts and Legal Implications of Water Fluoridation published in March 2012. Mr. Waugh is an independent environmental scientist, member of the Chartered Institution of water and Environmental Management and Institute of Environmental Management and Assessment.  This was followed by Medical Ethics expert Dr. David Shaw, lecturer in Ethics in Dentistry at Glasgow University who recently published a paper in a peer reviewed journal Medical Law International confirming that fluoridation of water supplies is indeed a medicine. In a detailed analysis of European law on medicines, foods and water fluoridation Dr. Shaw concludes that the practice of water fluoridation “appears to contradict legislation and regulations governing food and healthcare in the EU.” This new analysis provides expert confirmation that fluoridated water must now be subject to regulation under the strict provisions of the Medicines Act.

A third review was undertaken by Dr. Awofeso, Professor of Public Health, University of Western Australia, and University of New South Wales, Australia published in the peer reviewed Oxford journal Public Health Ethics. Professor Awofeso concluded that “artificial water fluoridation cannot be justified on major ethical parameters such as effectiveness, proportionality, necessity, least infringement and public justification”. The review also found that “to date, there is no evidence to support the assertion that water fluoridation reduced social disparities in caries incidence internationally” and “ironically found that the most well-known adverse effect of artificial water fluoridation, that is, dental fluorosis is inequitably distributed, with poorer children more likely to develop dental fluorosis than children from socio economically communities.” The review also found that  “Public justification of water fluoridation is anchored in the ‘common good’ utilitarian principle—that is, the best outcome for the greatest number. While this principle is valid in some public health contexts such as mandatory wheat flour fortification with folic acid.. it cannot be justified in the case of water fluoridation given the wide availability of alternative sources whose intake are easier to regulate.” Dr. Awofeso goes on to state that “the fluosilicic acid brands used in artificially fluoridating  water supplies are known to be contaminated with lead, arsenic and mercury—major public health hazards for which no safe level exists.” and “rather than addressing the legitimate concerns of the public with regards to the ethics of fluoridation, pro-fluoridation activists dismiss anti-water fluoridation advocates as misinformed trouble makers intent on undermining public health.” In ending the review summarized that “Water fluoridation fails the precautionary principle test as defined by the (Commission of the European Communities, 2000).

The fourth review was undertake by Dr. Balan, Associate Professor of Public Health published in the Romanian Journal of Internal Medicine, which finds that the fluoride compounds which are put into water for fluoridation have never been tested for human safety while highlighting the potential neurological and general health risks that may be associated with exposure to fluoride including disturbances to central nervous system, osteosclerosis, arthritic symptoms, chronic joint pain and calcification of ligaments. Dr. Balan concluded that "All the recent large-scale studies of water fluoridation have shown that there are no positive effects. A supplementary confirmation is given by the fact that countries without fluoridation have shown an equal improvement in dental health than those with fluoridation. And there are also proofs regarding the fact that excessive fluoride exposure leads to increased levels of caries".

There is also a very important review published in the peer reviewed journal Chemosphere by Dr. Julio Camargo, Ecology Department, Faculty of Science, University of Alcalá, Madrid, Spain titled ‘Fluoride toxicity to aquatic organisms’ in which Dr. Camargo states that “Fluoride accumulation in hard tissues may be viewed as a defense mechanism against fluoride intoxication because of the removal of fluoride from body circulation” and that “The toxic action of fluoride resides in the fact that fluoride ions act as enzymatic poisons, inhibiting enzyme activity and, ultimately, interrupting metabolic processes such as glycolysis and synthesis of proteins” Dr. Camargo’s findings were accepted by the United Nations Environment Programme and World Health Organisation in 2002, in their publication Fluorides- Environmental Health Criteria in which they concluded that “Excess exposure to bioavailable fluoride constitutes a risk to aquatic and terrestrial biota” and “that anthropogenic discharges such as emissions from water treatment plants will lead to increased levels of fluoride in the environment.”

In addition to this we have recent review by Dr. Grandjean et al. Professor of Public Health at the Harvard School of Public Health in the peer reviewed journal Environmental Health Perspectives in which Harvard researchers found that fluoride in drinking water may act as a developmental neurotoxin in children.

All of these important academics point out the lack of ethical validity in water fluoridation as the human health and environmental risks associated with fluoride and water fluoridation. These peer reviewed papers are extremely important in confirming what we already know that fluoridation is a charade founded on medical and legal fiction that results in the accumulation of fluoride in biological systems both within the human body as well as within the wider environment.

How the Department of Health can continue to justify supporting such a policy in light of the mounting scientific evidence is deeply disturbing as it clearly violates the ‘Precautionary Principle’ enshrined in the treaty of Europe as well as the Aarthus Convention which the Government of Ireland ratified in January of 2012. The Government are due to sign a new three year contract for the supply of water fluoridation chemicals later this year. Surely the best and most ethical decision they can now make is to end this policy and use this money for the provision of essential services elsewhere.



  2. Read "The Devil's Poison" by Dean Murphy, DDS and you will never use fluoridated toothpaste or drink fluoridated water again. (available on Kindle for $10.95)

  3. I've read numerous books on how bad fluoride is but can't find a single book written on how it is good for you? As one source said " It is the biggest scam ever put over on the american public"..

  4. Thank you for this valuable information. I will use it in my reply to the minister for health concerning this matter.