Thursday, October 4, 2012
Molecular Mechanisms of Fluoride Toxicity
CHEMICO-BIOLOGICAL INTERACTIONS is a leading peer reviewed journal of molecular, cellular and biochemical toxicology that publishes research reports and review articles that examine the molecular, cellular, and/or biochemical basis of toxicologically relevant outcomes. Special emphasis is placed on toxicological mechanisms associated with interactions between chemicals and biological systems. The Chemico-Biological Interactions Editorial Board can be viewed at:
Keywords: Fluoride toxicity, silicofluorides, drinking water.
The primary purpose of this review is to examine recent findings that focus on the molecular mechanisms of the action of inorganic fluoride in several cellular processes with respect to potential physiological and toxicological implications. The report highlights how drinking water is the primary source of fluoride exposure in humans. In this route of exposure, fluoride targets biological systems in the human body.
This review presents an overview of the current research on the molecular aspects of fluoride exposure with emphasis on biological targets and their possible mechanisms of involvement in fluoride cytotoxicity. The goal of this review is to enhance understanding of the mechanisms by which fluoride affects cells, with an emphasis on tissue-specific events in humans.
This paper examines how fluoride affects cellular function, acts as an enzyme inhibitor in the body, is a mutagenic agent, induces chromosome aberrations and cytotoxic effects and causes chromosomal anomalies along with primary DNA damage in human cells.
The report examines how fluoride can stimulate cancerous tumor cells and promote their development, their invasive properties and their migration in the human body.
The report examines how fluoride exposure may contribute to impaired glucose tolerance and discusses the toxic effects of fluoride on insulin secretion and impairs glucose metabolism.
The report highlights how fluoride impairs the regulation of calcium levels in humans resulting in increased calcium retention in some tissues and reduces calcium transport and metabolism in the human body. Calcium regulation is critical for normal cell function, neural transmission, membrane stability, bone structure, blood coagulation, and intracellular signalling as well as for hormonal secretion in endocrine organs. The report highlights how all these mechanisms can also be targets of fluoride.
The report discusses how fluoride in drinking water coexists with several other xenobiotics, frequently metals such as lead, arsenic and aluminum and how Fluoride can modify their kinetic and toxicity properties. It discusses how fluoride-aluminum complexes may result in a wide rage of health effects, the interaction of arsenic and fluoride and how when they combine in drinking water increase the induction of genotoxic effects on humans. The report highlights the relationship between water fluoridation and elevated blood lead.
The report highlights that fluoride must be actively considered as a potent toxic compound in the field of toxicology, both in epidemiologic/ecological research and in fundamental or applied research and that much greater study is required to examine fully the impact of fluoride on biological systems. The report concludes that there is an absence of clear proof to counter the known and diverse toxic effects of fluoride on the human body, in particularly the toxicological effects of its combination with metalloids and metals and observes that extensive experiments are needed to conclusively determine the effects of such combinations on biological systems as well as to account fully for the different toxic effects of fluoride in general.