Sunday, February 16, 2014



Infant formula prepared with fluoridated drinking water exceeds the maximum standard for the composition of infant formula as recommended by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), the World Health Organization (WHO) and the European Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition.

The Codex Committee on Nutrition and Foods for Special Dietary Uses (CCNFSDU) was established in 1963 by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) and the World Health Organization (WHO) to develop food safety standards. 

In 2004, in revieving the CODEX standard on Infant formula they requested additional advice from an international group of scientific experts in the area of infant nutrition. CCNFSDU asked the Committee on Nutrition of ESPGHAN (The European Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition) to initiate a consultation process with the international scientific community to provide a proposal on nutrient levels in infant formulae, based on scientific analysis and taking into account existing scientific reports on the subject.  ESPGHAN in collaboration with its sister societies in the Federation of International Societies on Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition, invited highly qualified experts in the area of infant nutrition to form an International Expert Group (IEG) to review the issues raised. 

The final report (JPGN 41:584–599, 2005) was written, circulated to all IEG members, approved and submitted to the CCNFSDU and its EWG in June 2005 [1].

In their report the committee concluded “that the benefit of a high fluoride intake during early infancy is questionable and carries the risk of dental fluorosis. Therefore, maximum levels should be as low as possible and not exceed 0.6mg per 100 kcal.”

The committee established the maximum energy content (kcal per 100 ml) for infant formula at 70kcal.  At this compositional requirement the fluoride content in infant formula must not exceed 0.42mg/L [1].

When any of the dry or powered formulas are mixed with fluoride adjusted water (0.7-1.2mg/L), the fluoride levels to which the infants are exposed approximate to 1.45 mg/L [2,3].  

That is 340% above the maximum recommended limit. 

Public health Authorities globally have been aware of these food safety standards since 2005, yet, in fluoridated countries they continue to disregard the scientific evidence and allow overexposure of sensitive infants to a toxic substance that has recently been identified as a developmental neurotoxin.[4].

[1] Medical Position Paper 2005, Global Standard for the Composition of Infant Formula: Recommendations of an ESPGHAN Coordinated International Expert Group. Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition 41: 584–599 November 2005
[2]Johnson J Jr and Bawden JW, (1987) The Fluoride Content of Infant Formulas Available in 1985, 1987. Pediatr Dent, 9(1): 33-7
[3] McKnight-Hayes MC, Leverrett DH, et al. Fluoride content of Infant Formulas: 1988, Pediatr Dent, 10(3): 189-94
[4] Grandjean P. Landrigan P. J. Neurobehavioural effects of developmental toxicity. The Lancet Neurology - 1 March 2014 ( Vol. 13, Issue 3, Pages 330-338 ) DOI: 10.1016/S1474-4422(13)70278-